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Judul: The Role of Plant Biotechnology on Local Food Sovereignity of Maluku
Penulis: G. A. Wattimena   || email:
Jurnal: Prosiding PERMAMA 2012 Vol. 1 no. 1 - hal. 91-108 Tahun 2012  [ Prosiding ]
Keywords:  Food Sovereignity, Maluku
Abstract: Maluku is an archipelago province consist of 559 Islands, four big islands and the rest small islands. Total area of Maluku is 658.148,48 km2, where 92.4 percent is sea and 7.6 percent land.Local food crops are non cereal food crops namely cassava, sweet potato, yam, cocoyam, banana, plantain, Fiji banana, breadfruit and sago palm. Dusun is one of the local technology of cropping system that already established before the Portuguese (1511) and the Dutch (1602) arrived in Ambon and Banda. Dawson is a sustainable agricultural system of mixed crops of perennial and annual crops. It is ecologically sound, economically viable, socially just and humane. Dusun is the embryo of the present LEISA (Low External Input Sustainable Agriculture) and Green Economics. Biotechnology simple means applying biotechnology knowledge benefit to local food crops and cropping system. The main role isto develop elite crop propagates and to improve crop cultivars.The conventional propagation technique is already established, no need for tissue culture methods except for sago palm (protocol is available). Genetic engineering technology is used to transfer important genes for improving the local varieties. The important genes are the optimistic genes, antisenescence genes, stress tolerance genes and glutenin genes.From the genotypes, genes, and methods availability cassava is one of the tuber crops are ready to transform genetically. The genes available are the glutenin genes, ipt genes, and cod A genes. The genetic modified (GM) cassava transformed with these 3 genes will be highly productive, highly resistant to abiotic stress and produce cassava flour which is similar to wheat flour. At present, Indonesia imported 5 million tons of wheat a year equaled1.5 billion US dollars. This GM cassava benefits not only the farmers, the Maluku and the nations but also the whole world.
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